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Improve DEV errors if string coercion throws (Temporal.*, Symbol, etc…
….) (#22064)

* Revise ESLint rules for string coercion

Currently, react uses `'' + value` to coerce mixed values to strings.
This code will throw for Temporal objects or symbols.

To make string-coercion safer and to improve user-facing error messages,
This commit adds a new ESLint rule called `safe-string-coercion`.

This rule has two modes: a production mode and a non-production mode.
* If the `isProductionUserAppCode` option is true, then `'' + value`
  coercions are allowed (because they're faster, although they may
  throw) and `String(value)` coercions are disallowed. Exception:
  when building error messages or running DEV-only code in prod
  files, `String()` should be used because it won't throw.
* If the `isProductionUserAppCode` option is false, then `'' + value`
  coercions are disallowed (because they may throw, and in non-prod
  code it's not worth the risk) and `String(value)` are allowed.

Production mode is used for all files which will be bundled with
developers' userland apps. Non-prod mode is used for all other React
code: tests, DEV blocks, devtools extension, etc.

In production mode, in addiiton to flagging `String(value)` calls,
the rule will also flag `'' + value` or `value + ''` coercions that may
throw. The rule is smart enough to silence itself in the following
"will never throw" cases:
* When the coercion is wrapped in a `typeof` test that restricts to safe
  (non-symbol, non-object) types. Example:
    if (typeof value === 'string' || typeof value === 'number') {
      thisWontReport('' + value);
    }
* When what's being coerced is a unary function result, because unary
   functions never return an object or a symbol.
* When the coerced value is a commonly-used numeric identifier:
  `i`, `idx`, or `lineNumber`.
* When the statement immeidately before the coercion is a DEV-only
  call to a function from shared/CheckStringCoercion.js. This call is a
  no-op in production, but in DEV it will show a console error
  explaining the problem, then will throw right after a long explanatory
  code comment so that debugger users will have an idea what's going on.
  The check function call must be in the following format:
    if (__DEV__) {
      checkXxxxxStringCoercion(value);
    };

Manually disabling the rule is usually not necessary because almost all
prod use of the `'' + value` pattern falls into one of the categories
above. But in the rare cases where the rule isn't smart enough to detect
safe usage (e.g. when a coercion is inside a nested ternary operator),
manually disabling the rule will be needed.

The rule should also be manually disabled in prod error handling code
where `String(value)` should be used for coercions, because it'd be
bad to throw while building an error message or stack trace!

The prod and non-prod modes have differentiated error messages to
explain how to do a proper coercion in that mode.

If a production check call is needed but is missing or incorrect
(e.g. not in a DEV block or not immediately before the coercion), then
a context-sensitive error message will be reported so that developers
can figure out what's wrong and how to fix the problem.

Because string coercions are now handled by the `safe-string-coercion`
rule, the `no-primitive-constructor` rule no longer flags `String()`
usage. It still flags `new String(value)` because that usage is almost
always a bug.

* Add DEV-only string coercion check functions

This commit adds DEV-only functions to check whether coercing
values to strings using the `'' + value` pattern will throw. If it will
throw, these functions will:
1. Display a console error with a friendly error message describing
   the problem and the developer can fix it.
2. Perform the coercion, which will throw. Right before the line where
   the throwing happens, there's a long code comment that will help
   debugger users (or others looking at the exception call stack) figure
   out what happened and how to fix the problem.

One of these check functions should be called before all string coercion
of user-provided values, except when the the coercion is guaranteed not
to throw, e.g.
* if inside a typeof check like `if (typeof value === 'string')`
* if coercing the result of a unary function like `+value` or `value++`
* if coercing a variable named in a whitelist of numeric identifiers:
  `i`, `idx`, or `lineNumber`.

The new `safe-string-coercion` internal ESLint rule enforces that
these check functions are called when they are required.

Only use these check functions in production code that will be bundled
with user apps.  For non-prod code (and for production error-handling
code), use `String(value)` instead which may be a little slower but will
never throw.

* Add failing tests for string coercion

Added failing tests to verify:
* That input, select, and textarea elements with value and defaultValue
  set to Temporal-like objects which will throw when coerced to string
  using the `'' + value` pattern.
* That text elements will throw for Temporal-like objects
* That dangerouslySetInnerHTML will *not* throw for Temporal-like
  objects because this value is not cast to a string before passing to
  the DOM.
* That keys that are Temporal-like objects will throw

All tests above validate the friendly error messages thrown.

* Use `String(value)` for coercion in non-prod files

This commit switches non-production code from `'' + value` (which
throws for Temporal objects and symbols) to instead use `String(value)`
which won't throw for these or other future plus-phobic types.

"Non-produciton code" includes anything not bundled into user apps:
* Tests and test utilities. Note that I didn't change legacy React
  test fixtures because I assumed it was good for those files to
  act just like old React, including coercion behavior.
* Build scripts
* Dev tools package - In addition to switching to `String`, I also
  removed special-case code for coercing symbols which is now
  unnecessary.

* Add DEV-only string coercion checks to prod files

This commit adds DEV-only function calls to to check if string coercion
using `'' + value` will throw, which it will if the value is a Temporal
object or a symbol because those types can't be added with `+`.

If it will throw, then in DEV these checks will show a console error
to help the user undertsand what went wrong and how to fix the
problem. After emitting the console error, the check functions will
retry the coercion which will throw with a call stack that's easy (or
at least easier!) to troubleshoot because the exception happens right
after a long comment explaining the issue. So whether the user is in
a debugger, looking at the browser console, or viewing the in-browser
DEV call stack, it should be easy to understand and fix the problem.

In most cases, the safe-string-coercion ESLint rule is smart enough to
detect when a coercion is safe. But in rare cases (e.g. when a coercion
is inside a ternary) this rule will have to be manually disabled.

This commit also switches error-handling code to use `String(value)`
for coercion, because it's bad to crash when you're trying to build
an error message or a call stack!  Because `String()` is usually
disallowed by the `safe-string-coercion` ESLint rule in production
code, the rule must be disabled when `String()` is used.
  • Loading branch information
justingrant committed Sep 27, 2021
1 parent 05726d7 commit c88fb49d37fd01024e0a254a37b7810d107bdd1d
Showing 58 changed files with 1,561 additions and 85 deletions.
@@ -108,6 +108,10 @@ module.exports = {
// CUSTOM RULES
// the second argument of warning/invariant should be a literal string
'react-internal/no-primitive-constructors': ERROR,
'react-internal/safe-string-coercion': [
ERROR,
{isProductionUserAppCode: true},
],
'react-internal/no-to-warn-dev-within-to-throw': ERROR,
'react-internal/invariant-args': ERROR,
'react-internal/warning-args': ERROR,
@@ -168,10 +172,17 @@ module.exports = {
'packages/*/npm/**/*.js',
'packages/dom-event-testing-library/**/*.js',
'packages/react-devtools*/**/*.js',
'dangerfile.js',
'fixtures',
'packages/react-dom/src/test-utils/*.js',
],
rules: {
'react-internal/no-production-logging': OFF,
'react-internal/warning-args': OFF,
'react-internal/safe-string-coercion': [
ERROR,
{isProductionUserAppCode: false},
],

// Disable accessibility checks
'jsx-a11y/aria-role': OFF,
@@ -185,7 +196,7 @@ module.exports = {
{
files: [
'scripts/eslint-rules/*.js',
'packages/eslint-plugin-react-hooks/src/*.js'
'packages/eslint-plugin-react-hooks/src/*.js',
],
plugins: ['eslint-plugin'],
rules: {
@@ -102,8 +102,8 @@ function row(result) {
let headSha;
let baseSha;
try {
headSha = (readFileSync(HEAD_DIR + '/COMMIT_SHA') + '').trim();
baseSha = (readFileSync(BASE_DIR + '/COMMIT_SHA') + '').trim();
headSha = String(readFileSync(HEAD_DIR + '/COMMIT_SHA')).trim();
baseSha = String(readFileSync(BASE_DIR + '/COMMIT_SHA')).trim();
} catch {
warn(
"Failed to read build artifacts. It's possible a build configuration " +
@@ -41,7 +41,7 @@ class ErrorBoundary extends React.Component {
if (this.state.error) {
return <p>Captured an error: {this.state.error.message}</p>;
} else {
return <p>Captured an error: {'' + this.state.error}</p>;
return <p>Captured an error: {String(this.state.error)}</p>;
}
}
if (this.state.shouldThrow) {
@@ -615,7 +615,7 @@ describe('ReactHooksInspectionIntegration', () => {
expect(tree[0].id).toEqual(0);
expect(tree[0].isStateEditable).toEqual(false);
expect(tree[0].name).toEqual('OpaqueIdentifier');
expect((tree[0].value + '').startsWith('c_')).toBe(true);
expect(String(tree[0].value).startsWith('c_')).toBe(true);

expect(tree[1]).toEqual({
id: 1,
@@ -646,7 +646,7 @@ describe('ReactHooksInspectionIntegration', () => {
expect(tree[0].id).toEqual(0);
expect(tree[0].isStateEditable).toEqual(false);
expect(tree[0].name).toEqual('OpaqueIdentifier');
expect((tree[0].value + '').startsWith('c_')).toBe(true);
expect(String(tree[0].value).startsWith('c_')).toBe(true);

expect(tree[1]).toEqual({
id: 1,
@@ -94,7 +94,7 @@ function createPanelIfReactLoaded() {

function initBridgeAndStore() {
const port = chrome.runtime.connect({
name: '' + tabId,
name: String(tabId),
});
// Looks like `port.onDisconnect` does not trigger on in-tab navigation like new URL or back/forward navigation,
// so it makes no sense to handle it here.
@@ -63,7 +63,7 @@ function getData(internalInstance: InternalInstance) {
// != used deliberately here to catch undefined and null
if (internalInstance._currentElement != null) {
if (internalInstance._currentElement.key) {
key = '' + internalInstance._currentElement.key;
key = String(internalInstance._currentElement.key);
}

const elementType = internalInstance._currentElement.type;
@@ -1848,7 +1848,7 @@ export function attach(

// This check is a guard to handle a React element that has been modified
// in such a way as to bypass the default stringification of the "key" property.
const keyString = key === null ? null : '' + key;
const keyString = key === null ? null : String(key);
const keyStringID = getStringID(keyString);

pushOperation(TREE_OPERATION_ADD);
@@ -166,11 +166,7 @@ export function format(
): string {
const args = inputArgs.slice();

// Symbols cannot be concatenated with Strings.
let formatted: string =
typeof maybeMessage === 'symbol'
? maybeMessage.toString()
: '' + maybeMessage;
let formatted: string = String(maybeMessage);

// If the first argument is a string, check for substitutions.
if (typeof maybeMessage === 'string') {
@@ -203,17 +199,14 @@ export function format(
// Arguments that remain after formatting.
if (args.length) {
for (let i = 0; i < args.length; i++) {
const arg = args[i];

// Symbols cannot be concatenated with Strings.
formatted += ' ' + (typeof arg === 'symbol' ? arg.toString() : arg);
formatted += ' ' + String(args[i]);
}
}

// Update escaped %% values.
formatted = formatted.replace(/%{2,2}/g, '%');

return '' + formatted;
return String(formatted);
}

export function isSynchronousXHRSupported(): boolean {
@@ -46,7 +46,7 @@ export default class ErrorBoundary extends Component<Props, State> {
error !== null &&
error.hasOwnProperty('message')
? error.message
: '' + error;
: String(error);

const callStack =
typeof error === 'object' &&
@@ -19,8 +19,8 @@ export function alphaSortEntries(
): number {
const a = entryA[0];
const b = entryB[0];
if ('' + +a === a) {
if ('' + +b !== b) {
if (String(+a) === a) {
if (String(+b) !== b) {
return -1;
}
return +a < +b ? -1 : 1;
@@ -180,10 +180,7 @@ export function installHook(target: any): DevToolsHook | null {
const args = inputArgs.slice();

// Symbols cannot be concatenated with Strings.
let formatted: string =
typeof maybeMessage === 'symbol'
? maybeMessage.toString()
: '' + maybeMessage;
let formatted = String(maybeMessage);

// If the first argument is a string, check for substitutions.
if (typeof maybeMessage === 'string') {
@@ -216,17 +213,14 @@ export function installHook(target: any): DevToolsHook | null {
// Arguments that remain after formatting.
if (args.length) {
for (let i = 0; i < args.length; i++) {
const arg = args[i];

// Symbols cannot be concatenated with Strings.
formatted += ' ' + (typeof arg === 'symbol' ? arg.toString() : arg);
formatted += ' ' + String(args[i]);
}
}

// Update escaped %% values.
formatted = formatted.replace(/%{2,2}/g, '%');

return '' + formatted;
return String(formatted);
}

let unpatchFn = null;
@@ -38,7 +38,6 @@ function normalizeSourcePath(
const {sourceRoot} = map;
let source = sourceInput;

// eslint-disable-next-line react-internal/no-primitive-constructors
source = String(source);
// Some source maps produce relative source paths like "./foo.js" instead of
// "foo.js". Normalize these first so that future comparisons will succeed.
@@ -834,7 +834,7 @@ export function formatDataForPreview(
return data;
default:
try {
return truncateForDisplay('' + data);
return truncateForDisplay(String(data));
} catch (error) {
return 'unserializable';
}
@@ -89,6 +89,27 @@ describe('ReactDOM unknown attribute', () => {
testUnknownAttributeAssignment(lol, 'lol');
});

it('throws with Temporal-like objects', () => {
class TemporalLike {
valueOf() {
// Throwing here is the behavior of ECMAScript "Temporal" date/time API.
// See https://tc39.es/proposal-temporal/docs/plaindate.html#valueOf
throw new TypeError('prod message');
}
toString() {
return '2020-01-01';
}
}
const test = () =>
testUnknownAttributeAssignment(new TemporalLike(), null);
expect(() =>
expect(test).toThrowError(new TypeError('prod message')),
).toErrorDev(
'Warning: The provided `unknown` attribute is an unsupported type TemporalLike.' +
' This value must be coerced to a string before before using it here.',
);
});

it('removes symbols and warns', () => {
expect(() => testUnknownAttributeRemoval(Symbol('foo'))).toErrorDev(
'Warning: Invalid value for prop `unknown` on <div> tag. Either remove it ' +
@@ -254,6 +254,28 @@ describe('ReactDOMComponent', () => {
ReactDOM.render(<span style={style} />, div);
});

it('throws with Temporal-like objects as style values', () => {
class TemporalLike {
valueOf() {
// Throwing here is the behavior of ECMAScript "Temporal" date/time API.
// See https://tc39.es/proposal-temporal/docs/plaindate.html#valueOf
throw new TypeError('prod message');
}
toString() {
return '2020-01-01';
}
}
const style = {fontSize: new TemporalLike()};
const div = document.createElement('div');
const test = () => ReactDOM.render(<span style={style} />, div);
expect(() =>
expect(test).toThrowError(new TypeError('prod message')),
).toErrorDev(
'Warning: The provided `fontSize` CSS property is an unsupported type TemporalLike.' +
' This value must be coerced to a string before before using it here.',
);
});

it('should update styles if initially null', () => {
let styles = null;
const container = document.createElement('div');
@@ -1130,7 +1152,7 @@ describe('ReactDOMComponent', () => {

describe('createOpenTagMarkup', () => {
function quoteRegexp(str) {
return (str + '').replace(/([.?*+\^$\[\]\\(){}|-])/g, '\\$1');
return String(str).replace(/([.?*+\^$\[\]\\(){}|-])/g, '\\$1');
}

function expectToHaveAttribute(actual, expected) {
@@ -1164,7 +1186,7 @@ describe('ReactDOMComponent', () => {

describe('createContentMarkup', () => {
function quoteRegexp(str) {
return (str + '').replace(/([.?*+\^$\[\]\\(){}|-])/g, '\\$1');
return String(str).replace(/([.?*+\^$\[\]\\(){}|-])/g, '\\$1');
}

function genMarkup(props) {
@@ -2412,6 +2434,28 @@ describe('ReactDOMComponent', () => {
expect(el.getAttribute('whatever')).toBe('[object Object]');
});

it('allows Temporal-like objects as HTML (they are not coerced to strings first)', function() {
class TemporalLike {
valueOf() {
// Throwing here is the behavior of ECMAScript "Temporal" date/time API.
// See https://tc39.es/proposal-temporal/docs/plaindate.html#valueOf
throw new TypeError('prod message');
}
toString() {
return '2020-01-01';
}
}

// `dangerouslySetInnerHTML` is never coerced to a string, so won't throw
// even with a Temporal-like object.
const container = document.createElement('div');
ReactDOM.render(
<div dangerouslySetInnerHTML={{__html: new TemporalLike()}} />,
container,
);
expect(container.firstChild.innerHTML).toEqual('2020-01-01');
});

it('allows cased data attributes', function() {
let el;
expect(() => {

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